Characteristics and Optimization of High Voltage Cables for Electric Vehicles

Perfect and complex design and use of high-quality materials will result in expensive cable costs. Experience shows that specific high-voltage cables can often be tailored by optimizing the section, temperature requirements, flexibility and shielding effect. Weight and cost savings can be demonstrated, and excessive size and excessive components can be avoided.
Optimization of sectional area and temperature grade: The selection of cables is mostly based on the environmental temperature and transmission current indicators. In this regard, the most important characteristics are "cable section" and "heat resistance grade of the materials used in the cable".
The voltage drop of the conductor is converted into the conductor of the high-voltage cable heated by thermal energy. This heat can be partially transferred to the environment to reduce the operating temperature of the conductor. A lower temperature gradient can transfer less heat. Cables with continuous load current can withstand the highest rated temperature. This temperature can cause aging of the materials used.
The challenge for cable designers is to design the cables that are most suitable for the application: excessive conductor specifications may lead to increased cost and weight, and larger outer diameters. In the worst case, only the highest possible load current and ambient temperature will be considered, which will lead to the use of large cross-section cables and high temperature resistant materials, such as organic fluorine or silicon materials.
It is very meaningful to determine the relationship between current and load ambient temperature from a technical and economic point of view. The real periodic dynamic current peak of the driver shall be considered, allowing reasonable definition of the worst case load current and peak current.
The prerequisite for a good design is to understand the basic conditions, such as the ambient temperature and cable load must be determined first. Generally, high-voltage cables with large cross-section have greater inertia in terms of temperature change, so the peak current of vehicle acceleration or deceleration will not cause a large impact on conductor temperature.
It is allowed that sometimes short-term temperature peaks exceed the cable temperature class defined above, and the ability of high-voltage cables to handle these peaks is usually defined by thermal overload performance. Therefore, the cable does not need to be designed as a higher operating temperature class, and it is unnecessary to use cables that exceed the specified operating temperature.
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